Last updated on: 11/4/2020 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.


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2Nicola Scafetta, "Multi-Scale Harmonic Model for Solar and Climate Cyclical Variation throughout the Holocene Based on Jupiter-Saturn Tidal Frequencies Plus the 11-Year Solar Dynamo Cycle," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, May 2012
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4University of Leicester, "An Ancient Earth Like Ours: Geologists Reconstruct the Earth's Climate Belts between 460 and 445 Million Years Ago,", Aug. 9, 2010
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11Bobby Magill, "Arctic Methane Emissions 'Certain to Trigger Warming,'", May 1, 2014
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28NASA, “Is the Sun Causing Global Warming?,” (accessed Apr. 1, 2020)
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32Kurt Lambeck, et al., "Sea Level and Global Ice Volumes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Oct. 28, 2014
33Oliver Milman, "Sea Level Rise over Past Century Unmatched in 6,000 Years, Says Study,", Oct. 13, 2014
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35Marta Marcos and Angel Amores, "Quantifying Anthropogenic and Natural Contributions to Thermosteric Sea Level Rise,” Geophysical Research Letters, Mar. 29, 2014
36US Government Accountability Office, "Ocean Acidification: Federal Response Under Way, but Actions Needed to Understand and Address Potential Impacts,", Sep. 2014
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38Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and John F. Bruno, "The Impact of Climate Change on the World’s Marine Ecosystems," Science, June 18, 2010
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41Paul J. Durack, et al., "Quantifying Underestimates of Long-Term Upper-Ocean Warming," Nature Climate Change, Oct. 2014
42Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, "Research Shows Humans Are Primary Cause of Global Ocean Warming over Past 50 Years,”, June 10, 2012
43The Earth Institute Columbia University, "Is Global Heating Hiding Out in the Oceans?,", Oct. 31, 2013
44 National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), "Glaciers and Climate Change," (accessed Feb. 23, 2015)
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47James Hansen, Makiko Sato, and Reto Ruedy, "Perception of Climate Change," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sep. 11, 2012
48Kate Marvel and Céline Bonfils, "Identifying External Influences on Global Precipitation," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nov. 26, 2013
49Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,", 2014
50Bobby Magill, "Arctic Methane Emissions 'Certain to Trigger Warming,'", May 1, 2014
51NOAA National Climatic Data Center, "What Are Positive Feedbacks?," (accessed Feb. 23, 2015)
52Susan M. Natali, Edward A.G. Schuur, Elizabeth E. Webb, Caitlin E. Hicks Pries, and Kathryn G. Crummer, "Permafrost Degradation Stimulates Carbon Loss from Experimentally Warmed Tundar," Ecology, Mar. 2014
53United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), "Policy Implications of Warming Permafrost,", 2012
54David Henderson, "1.6%, Not 97%, Agree that Humans are the Main Cause of Global Warming,”, Mar. 16, 2014
55Climate Depot, "More than 1000 International Scientists Dissent over Man-Made Global Warming Claims,", Dec. 8, 2010
5615 Scientists "Scientists Respond to the Obama Administration's National Climate Assessment– 2014,", May 15, 2014
57Joseph Bast, "The Myth of the 98 Percent,", Oct. 2012
58Joseph Bast and Roy Spencer, "The Myth of the Climate Change '97%,’", May 26, 2014
59Leif Kullman, "Ecological Tree Line History and Palaeoclimate - Review of Megafossil Evidence from the Swedish Scandes," Boreas, 2013
60Patrick Moore, "Natural Resource Adaptation: Protecting Ecosystems and Economies,", Feb. 25, 2014
61Rob Monroe, "How Much CO2 Can the Oceans Take Up?,", July 3, 2013
62Sean M. McMahon, Geoffrey G. Parker, and Dawn R. Miller, "Evidence for a Recent Increase in Forest Growth," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Feb. 23, 2010
63Craig D. Idso, "A New Propaganda Film by the NRDC Fails the Acid Test of Real World Data,", Jan. 5, 2010
64A.P. Ballantyne, et al., "Increase in Observed Net Carbon Dioxide Uptake by Land and Oceans during the Past 50 Years," Nature, Aug. 2012
65Marc Morano, "New Peer-Reviewed Scientific Studies Chill Global Warming Fears,", Aug. 20, 2007
66William Happer, "Climate Science in the Political Arena,", May 20, 2010
67Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), "Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science,", Sep. 2013
68O.M. Raspopov, et al., "Deep Solar Activity Minima, Sharp Climate Changes, and Their Impact on Ancient Civilizations," Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Dec. 2013
69W.J.R. Alexander and F. Bailey, "Solar Activity and Climate Change - A Summary," Energy & Environment, Nov. 2007
70Willie Soon and David R. Legates, "Solar Irradiance Modulation of Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) Temperature Gradients: Empirical Evidence for Climate Variation on Multi-Decadal Timescales," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Dec. 13, 2012
71Nicola Scafetta, "Multi-Scale Harmonic Model for Solar and Climate Cyclical Variation throughout the Holocene Based on Jupiter-Saturn Tidal Frequencies Plus the 11-Year Solar Dynamo Cycle," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2012
72Ross R. McKitrick, "HAC-Robust Measurement of the Duration of a Trendless Subsample in a Global Climate Time Series," Open Journal of Statistics, Aug. 2014
73Richard Lindzen, "MIT Climate Scientist Dr. Richard Lindzen Rips UN IPCC Report,", Sep. 28, 2013
74Qian WeiHong and Lu Bo, "Periodic Oscillations in Millennial Global-Mean Temperature and Their Causes," Chinese Science Bulletin, Dec. 2010
75Richard S. Lindzen and Yong-Sang Choi, "On the Observational Determination of Climate Sensitivity and Its Implications," Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2011
76Nicholas Lewis and Judith A. Curry, "The Implications for Climate Sensitivity of AR5 Forcing and Heat Uptake Estimates," Climate Dynamics, Sep. 25, 2014
77Roy W. Spencer, "95% of Climate Models Agree: The Observations Must Be Wrong,", Feb. 7, 2014
78Tim Ball, "A Simple Truth; Computer Climate Models Cannot Work,", Oct. 16, 2014
79Willem P. de Lange and Robert M. Carter, "Sea-Level Change: Living with Uncertainty,", 2014
80Judith Curry, "Slowing Sea Level Rise,", Apr. 24, 2014
81Michael D. Lemonick, "Freeman Dyson Takes on the Climate Establishment,", June 4, 2009
82M.R. Palmer, P.N. Pearson, and S.J. Cobb, "Reconstructing Past Ocean pH-Depth Profiles," Science, Nov. 1998
83Fred Pearce, "Claims Himalayan Glaciers Could Melt by 2035 Were False, Says UN Scientist,", Jan. 21, 2010
84I.M. Bahuguna, et al., "Are the Himalayan Glaciers Retreating?," Current Science, Apr. 2014
85Eric J. Steig, et al., "Recent Climate and Ice-Sheet Changes in West Antarctica Compared with the Past 2,000 Years," Nature Geoscience, Apr. 14, 2013
86Brett Smith, "Antarctic Glacial Melt Part of a Natural Cycle, Says New Study,", Apr. 15, 2013
87Larry Bell, "Receding Swiss Glaciers Inconveniently Reveal 4000 Year Old Forests - and Make It Clear That Glacier Retreat Is Nothing New,", Aug. 8, 2014
88Don J. Easterbrook, "Global Cooling Is Here,", June 28, 2014
89Philip J. Klotzbach and William M. Gray, "Qualitative Discussion of Atlantic Basin Seasonal Hurricane Activity for 2014,", Dec. 10, 2013
90Judith Curry, "Climate Change, Extreme Weather Linked(?) at Last,", June 30, 2011
91Ezra Klein, "Al Gore Explains Why He's Optimistic about Stopping Global Warming,", Aug. 21, 2013
92Richard S. Lindzen, "The Political Assault on Climate Skeptics,", Mar. 4, 2015
93Craig D. Idso, "Extreme Weather Events: Are They Influenced by Rising Atmospheric CO2?,", Sep. 10, 2014
94NOAA National Climactic Data Center, "Annual Global Analysis for 2014 ,", Jan. 2015
95Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), "Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts,", 2014
96Lyle Denniston, "Opinion Analysis: EPA Mostly Wins, but with Criticism,", June 23, 2014
97Christopher Monckton, Willie W.H. Soon, David R. Legates, and William M. Briggs, "Why Models Run Hot: Results from an Irreducibly Simple Climate Model," Science Bulletin, Jan. 2015
98 National Research Council of the National Academies, "Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years,", 2006
99National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), "Global Climate Change Indicators,", Apr. 13, 2010
100National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), "Global Climate Change: How Do We Know," (accessed Apr. 7, 2015)
101Robert Andres, and Gregg Marland, et al., "Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, 1751-1991," Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May 23, 1994
102Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis,", 2007
103Justin Gillis and Nadja Popovich, "The U.S. Is the Biggest Carbon Polluter in History. It Just Walked away from the Paris Climate Deal.,”, June 1, 2017
104Tihomir Novakov, et al., "Aerosol Organic Carbon to Black Carbon Ratios: Analysis of Published Data and Implications for Climate Forcing," Journal of Geophysical Research, Nov. 8, 2005
105Julienne Stroeve, et al., "Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Faster than Forecast," Journal of Geophysical Research, May 1, 2007
106John A. Church, and Neil J. White, "A 20th Century Acceleration in Global Sea-Level Rise," Geophysical Research Letters, Jan. 6, 2006
107James P. Barry, "Marine Organisms and Ecosystems in a High CO2 Ocean," Monterey Bay Research Institute, Apr. 22, 2010
108National Research Council, "Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean,", 2010
109 Johannes Oerlemans, "Deriving Global Temperature from Glacier Length Records," (accessed May 6, 2010)
110World Glacier Monitoring Service, "Preliminary Glacier Mass Balance Data 2007/2008," (accessed Apr. 27, 2010)
111Tim P. Barnett, et al., "Human-Induced Changes in the Hydrology of the Western United States," Science, Feb. 22, 2008
112Andrew Dessler, et al., "Water-Vapor Climate Feedback Inferred from Climate Fluctuations, 2003–2008," Geophysical Research Letters, Oct. 2008
113NASA, "Water Vapor Confirmed as Major Player in Climate Change,", Nov. 17, 2008
114Arthur B. Robinson, et al., "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Fall 2007
115Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas, "Proxy Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years," Climate Research, 2003
116Anders Moberg, et al., "Highly Variable Northern Hemisphere Temperatures Reconstructed from Low and High Resolution Proxy Data," Nature, Feb. 2005
117Nicholas Caillon, and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, et al., "Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes across Termination III," Science, Mar. 14, 2003
118US Senate Minority Environment and Public Works Committee, "US Senate Report: Over 400 Prominent Scientists Disputed Man-Made Global Warming Claims in 2007," epw.senate.go, Dec. 20, 2007
119Richard S. Lindzen, "Testimony of Richard S. Lindzen before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee,", May 2, 2001
120Keith Sherwood and Craig Idso, "The Ocean Acidification Fiction,", June 2009
121Dennis Ambler, "Acidified Shell Fish: A Distorted View,", Apr. 27, 2010
122William Gray, "MIT Professor's Climate Change Op-Ed Proven False,", Apr. 7, 2010
123Roy W. Spencer, "Global Warming as a Natural Response to Cloud Changes Associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO),", Oct. 20, 2008
124Petr Chylek, et al., "Arctic Air Temperature Change Amplification and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation," Geophysical Research Letters, July 16, 2009
125Max Mayfield, "Oversight Hearing on the Lifesaving Role of Accurate Hurricane Prediction," US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Disaster Prevention and Prediction, Sep. 20, 2005
126NASA, "John Tyndall (1820-1893)," (June 2, 2010)
127G.S. Callendar, "The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and Its Influence on Temperature," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Feb. 16, 1938
128National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), "Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record," (accessed June 2, 2010)
129Scripps Institution of Oceanography, "Obituary Notice: Climate Science Pioneer: Charles David Keeling,", June 22, 2005
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131James Hansen, "The Greenhouse Effect: Impacts on Current Global Temperature and Regional Heat Waves," US Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Hearing, June 23, 1988
132James Hansen, et al., "Global Climate Changes as Forecasted by Goddard Institute for Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model," Journal of Geophysical Research, Aug. 20, 1988
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141Christiaan Vrolijk, "The Bonn Agreement - The World Agrees to Leave the US on the Sideline,", Aug. 2001
142United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, "Copenhagen Accord,", Dec. 18, 2009
143Al Jazeera English, "Bolivian Climate Summit Gets UN Nod,", Apr. 22, 2010
144World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth, "Peoples Agreement,", Apr. 22, 2010
145 Take Part, "An Inconvenient Truth: About the Film," (accessed Apr. 7, 2015)
146Norwegian Noble Committee, "The Nobel Peace Prize 2007,", Oct. 12, 2007
147S. Fred Singer, ed., "Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate,", 2008
148Heartland Institute, "About our Conferences," (accessed Apr. 7 2015)
149Supreme Court of the United States, Massachusetts v. EPA,, Apr. 2, 2007
150US Environmental Protection Agency, "EPA: Greenhouse Gases Threaten Public Health and the Environment,", Dec. 7, 2009
151Congressional Budget Office (CBO), "Federal Climate Change Programs: Funding History and Policy Issues,", Mar. 26, 2010
152Kyle L. Swanson, George Sugihara, and Anastasios A. Tsonis, "Long-Term Natural Variability and 20th Century Climate Change," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, July 31, 2009
153Stephen E. Schwartz, "Uncertainty in Climate Sensitivity: Causes, Consequences, Challenges," Energy and Environmental Science, Aug. 2008
154Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, "An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security,", Oct. 2003
155Arthur B. Robinson, et al., "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Fall 2007
156Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Headline Statements from the Summary for Policy Makers,", Sep. 27, 2013
157Jim Inhofe, "Inhofe Statement on President's National Climate Assessment,", May 6, 2014
158Ed Hawkins and Phil Jones, "On Increasing Global Temperatures: 75 Years After Callendar," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2013
159Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “About the IPCC,” (accessed Mar. 31, 2020)
160United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, "Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Eighteenth Session,", Feb. 28, 2013
161Nick Visser, "Hundreds of Thousands Turn Out for People's Climate March in New York City,", Sep. 21, 2014
162Pew Research Center, "Section 7: Global Warming, Environment and Energy,", June 26, 2014
163National Snow and Ice Data Center, "SOTC: Sea Ice,", Oct. 11, 2019
164National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Arctic Nearly Free of Summer Ice During First Half of 21st Century,", Apr. 12, 2013
165National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Is Sea Level Rising," (accessed Apr. 1, 2015)
166National Geographic, "Sea Temperature Rise," (accessed Apr. 1, 2015)
167 Union of Concerned Scientists, "Hurricanes and Climate Change," (according Apr. 1, 2015)
168Andrea Thompson, "Greenland Glaciers More Susceptible to Melt than Thought,", May 18, 2014
169United States Geological Service, "Retreat of Glaciers in Glacier National Park," (accessed Apr. 1, 2015)
170Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,", 2007
171 Lydia Saad, "Republican Skepticism Toward Global Warming Eases," (accessed Apr. 10, 2015)
172D. Bray and H. von Storch, "A Survey of the Perspectives of Climate Scientists Concerning Climate Science and Climate Change,", Sep. 2010
173Linda Stalker Prokopy, et al., "Agricultural Stakeholder Views on Climate Change: Implications for Conducting Research and Outreach," Journal of the American Meteorological Society, Feb. 2015
174E.M. Fischer and R. Knutti, "Anthropogenic Contribution to Global Occurrence of Heavy-Precipitation and High-Temperature Extremes," Nature Climate Change, Apr. 21, 2015
175Yale Project on Climate Change Communications, "Yale Climate Opinion Maps," (accessed June 8, 2015)
176New York Times, "The Road to a Paris Climate Deal,", Dec. 12, 2015
177United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, "Summary of the Paris Agreement," (accessed June 2, 2017)
178Coral Davenport, "Nations Approve Landmark Climate Accord in Paris,", Dec. 12, 2015
179Barack Obama, "Statement by the President on the Paris Climate Agreement,", Dec. 12, 2015
180Donald Trump, "Statement by President Trump on the Paris Climate Accord,", June 1, 2017
181Michael D. Shear, "Trump Will Withdraw US from Paris Climate Agreement,", June 1, 2017
182Alexander C. Kaufman, "Syria Vows to Sign Paris Agreement, Leaving US Alone in Climate Denial,", Nov. 7, 2017
183US Global Change Research Program, "Climate Science Special Report,", Nov. 2017
184Jonathan Watts, "We Have 12 Years to Limit Climate Change Catastrophe, Warns Un,", Oct. 8, 2018
185Umair Irfan, "Report: We Have Just 12 Years to Limit Devastating Global Warming,", Oct. 8, 2018
186US Global Change Research Program, "Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II,", Nov. 2018
187Josh Dawsey, et al., "Trump on Climate Change: 'People like Myself, We Have Very High Levels of Intelligence but We're Not Necessarily Such Believers,'", Nov. 27, 2018
188Cary Funk and Meg Hefferon, "Many Republican Millennials Differ with Older Party Members on Climate Change and Energy Issues,", May 14, 2018
189Cary Funk, et al., "Majorities See Government Efforts to Protect the Environment as Insufficient,", May 14, 2018
190Lydia Saad, "Global Warming Concern at Three-Decade High in US,", Mar. 14, 2017
191National Surveys on Energy and Environment, "As Americans Experienced the Warmest May on Record Their Acceptance of Global Warming Reaches a New High,", July 2018
192Anthony Leiserowitz, et al., "Climate Change in the American Mind: December 2018,", Jan. 22, 2019
193Anthony Leiserowitz, et al., "Politics & Global Warming, March 2018,", Mar. 2018
194The Keeling Curve, "Latest CO2 Reading,", May 11, 2019
195Washington Post, "Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation Climate Change Survey, July 9-Aug. 5, 2019,", Sep. 16, 2019
196Akshat Rathi, "How Big Was the Global Climate Strike? Here’s the Best City-By-City Estimate,", Sep. 21, 2019
197Eliza Barclay and Brian Resnick, “How Big Was the Global Climate Strike? 4 Million People, Activists Estimate,”, Sep. 22, 2019
198Henry Fountain, "2019 Was Second-Hottest Year on Record,”, Jan. 19, 2020
199Josie Gathwaite, "Global Fossil Fuel Emissions Have Climbed Upward for a Second Straight Year, Driven by Growing Energy Use,”, Dec. 5, 2018
200Executive Office of the President, “The President’s Climate Action Plan,”, June 2013
201EPA Press Office, "U.S. DOT and EPA Put Safety and American Families First with Final Rule on Fuel Economy Standards,”, Mar. 31, 2020
202Hannah Pitt and Maggie Young, "A Step Closer to a Rollback of Fuel Economy Standards,”, Feb. 13, 2020
203World Weather Attribution, "Attribution of the Australian Bushfire Risk to Anthropogenic Climate Change,", Jan. 10, 2020
204William Reville, Australian Bush Fires Were Not Caused by Climate Change Alone,”, Feb. 20, 2020
205NASA, "NASA, NOAA Analyses Reveal 2019 Second Warmest Year on Record,”, Jan. 15, 2020
206Katherine Ellen Foley, "Those 3% of Scientific Papers That Deny Climate Change? A Review Found Them All Flawed,”, Sep. 5, 2017
207Drew Kann, "The US Is Officially out of the Paris Climate Agreement. Here's What Could Happen Next,"
208Joseph R. Biden, “Paris Climate Agreement,”, Jan. 20, 2021
209Drew Kann and Kylie Atwood, “Paris Climate Accord: Biden Announces US Will Rejoin Landmark Agreement,”, Jan. 20, 2021
210Veronica Stracqualursi and Michael Callahan, "US Officially Rejoins the Paris Climate Accord,", Feb. 19, 2021