Last updated on: 4/1/2020 | Author: ProCon.org

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced):

Footnotes:

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2Nicola Scafetta, "Multi-Scale Harmonic Model for Solar and Climate Cyclical Variation throughout the Holocene Based on Jupiter-Saturn Tidal Frequencies Plus the 11-Year Solar Dynamo Cycle," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, May 2012
3Shaun A. Marcott, Jeremy D. Shakun, Peter U. Clark, and Alan C. Mix, "A Reconstruction of Regional and Global Temperature for the Past 11,300 Years," Science, Mar. 8, 2013
4University of Leicester, "An Ancient Earth Like Ours: Geologists Reconstruct the Earth's Climate Belts between 460 and 445 Million Years Ago," eurekaalert.org, Aug. 9, 2010
5James L. Powell, "Science and Global Warming," jamespowell.org (accessed Feb. 19, 2015)
6Stephen J. Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter, "The Structure of Scientific Opinion on Climate Change," International Journal of Public Opinion, Oct. 2011
7NASA, "Scientific Consensus: Earth's Climate Is Warming,” climate.nasa.gov (accessed Apr. 1, 2020)
8US Environmental Protection Agency, "The Greenhouse Effect," epa.gov (accessed Feb. 19, 2015)
9United Nations Environment Programme, "Climate Change Information Sheet 22: How Human Activities Produce Greenhouse Gases,” unfit.int, July 18, 2000
10NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," ersl.noaa.gov (accessed Feb. 19, 2015)
11Bobby Magill, "Arctic Methane Emissions 'Certain to Trigger Warming,'" climatecentral.org, May 1, 2014
12Euan G. Nisbet, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Philippe Bousquet, "Methane on the Rise – Again," Science, Jan. 2014
13 US Environmental Protection Agency, "Overview of Greenhouse Gases," epa.gov (accessed Feb. 19, 2015)
14Dave S. Reay, et al., "Global Agriculture and Nitrous Oxide Emissions," Nature Climate Change, June 2012
15Rob Monroe, "What Does This Number Mean?," scripps.ucsd.edu, Apr. 2013
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17Rob Monroe, "What Does 400 PPM Look Like?," scripps.ucsd.edu, Dec. 3, 2013
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35Marta Marcos and Angel Amores, "Quantifying Anthropogenic and Natural Contributions to Thermosteric Sea Level Rise,” Geophysical Research Letters, Mar. 29, 2014
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38Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and John F. Bruno, "The Impact of Climate Change on the World’s Marine Ecosystems," Science, June 18, 2010
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41Paul J. Durack, et al., "Quantifying Underestimates of Long-Term Upper-Ocean Warming," Nature Climate Change, Oct. 2014
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46American Meteorological Society, "Explaining Extreme Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Sep. 2014
47James Hansen, Makiko Sato, and Reto Ruedy, "Perception of Climate Change," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sep. 11, 2012
48Kate Marvel and Céline Bonfils, "Identifying External Influences on Global Precipitation," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nov. 26, 2013
49Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability," ipcc.ch, 2014
50Bobby Magill, "Arctic Methane Emissions 'Certain to Trigger Warming,'" climatecentral.org, May 1, 2014
51NOAA National Climatic Data Center, "What Are Positive Feedbacks?," ncdc.noaa.gov (accessed Feb. 23, 2015)
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53United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), "Policy Implications of Warming Permafrost," unep.org, 2012
54David Henderson, "1.6%, Not 97%, Agree that Humans are the Main Cause of Global Warming,” econlib.org, Mar. 16, 2014
55Climate Depot, "More than 1000 International Scientists Dissent over Man-Made Global Warming Claims," cfact.org, Dec. 8, 2010
5615 Scientists "Scientists Respond to the Obama Administration's National Climate Assessment– 2014," scribd.com, May 15, 2014
57Joseph Bast, "The Myth of the 98 Percent," heartland.org, Oct. 2012
58Joseph Bast and Roy Spencer, "The Myth of the Climate Change '97%,’" wsj.com, May 26, 2014
59Leif Kullman, "Ecological Tree Line History and Palaeoclimate - Review of Megafossil Evidence from the Swedish Scandes," Boreas, 2013
60Patrick Moore, "Natural Resource Adaptation: Protecting Ecosystems and Economies," epw.senate.gov, Feb. 25, 2014
61Rob Monroe, "How Much CO2 Can the Oceans Take Up?," scripps.ucsd.edu, July 3, 2013
62Sean M. McMahon, Geoffrey G. Parker, and Dawn R. Miller, "Evidence for a Recent Increase in Forest Growth," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Feb. 23, 2010
63Craig D. Idso, "A New Propaganda Film by the NRDC Fails the Acid Test of Real World Data," scienceandpublicpolicy.org, Jan. 5, 2010
64A.P. Ballantyne, et al., "Increase in Observed Net Carbon Dioxide Uptake by Land and Oceans during the Past 50 Years," Nature, Aug. 2012
65Marc Morano, "New Peer-Reviewed Scientific Studies Chill Global Warming Fears," epw.senate.gov, Aug. 20, 2007
66William Happer, "Climate Science in the Political Arena," globalwarming.house.gov, May 20, 2010
67Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), "Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science," nipccreport.org, Sep. 2013
68O.M. Raspopov, et al., "Deep Solar Activity Minima, Sharp Climate Changes, and Their Impact on Ancient Civilizations," Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Dec. 2013
69W.J.R. Alexander and F. Bailey, "Solar Activity and Climate Change - A Summary," Energy & Environment, Nov. 2007
70Willie Soon and David R. Legates, "Solar Irradiance Modulation of Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) Temperature Gradients: Empirical Evidence for Climate Variation on Multi-Decadal Timescales," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Dec. 13, 2012
71Nicola Scafetta, "Multi-Scale Harmonic Model for Solar and Climate Cyclical Variation throughout the Holocene Based on Jupiter-Saturn Tidal Frequencies Plus the 11-Year Solar Dynamo Cycle," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2012
72Ross R. McKitrick, "HAC-Robust Measurement of the Duration of a Trendless Subsample in a Global Climate Time Series," Open Journal of Statistics, Aug. 2014
73Richard Lindzen, "MIT Climate Scientist Dr. Richard Lindzen Rips UN IPCC Report," climatedepot.com, Sep. 28, 2013
74Qian WeiHong and Lu Bo, "Periodic Oscillations in Millennial Global-Mean Temperature and Their Causes," Chinese Science Bulletin, Dec. 2010
75Richard S. Lindzen and Yong-Sang Choi, "On the Observational Determination of Climate Sensitivity and Its Implications," Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2011
76Nicholas Lewis and Judith A. Curry, "The Implications for Climate Sensitivity of AR5 Forcing and Heat Uptake Estimates," Climate Dynamics, Sep. 25, 2014
77Roy W. Spencer, "95% of Climate Models Agree: The Observations Must Be Wrong," drroyspencer.com, Feb. 7, 2014
78Tim Ball, "A Simple Truth; Computer Climate Models Cannot Work," wattsupwiththat.com, Oct. 16, 2014
79Willem P. de Lange and Robert M. Carter, "Sea-Level Change: Living with Uncertainty," thegwpf.org, 2014
80Judith Curry, "Slowing Sea Level Rise," judithcurry.com, Apr. 24, 2014
81Michael D. Lemonick, "Freeman Dyson Takes on the Climate Establishment," e360.yale.edu, June 4, 2009
82M.R. Palmer, P.N. Pearson, and S.J. Cobb, "Reconstructing Past Ocean pH-Depth Profiles," Science, Nov. 1998
83Fred Pearce, "Claims Himalayan Glaciers Could Melt by 2035 Were False, Says UN Scientist," theguardian.com, Jan. 21, 2010
84I.M. Bahuguna, et al., "Are the Himalayan Glaciers Retreating?," Current Science, Apr. 2014
85Eric J. Steig, et al., "Recent Climate and Ice-Sheet Changes in West Antarctica Compared with the Past 2,000 Years," Nature Geoscience, Apr. 14, 2013
86Brett Smith, "Antarctic Glacial Melt Part of a Natural Cycle, Says New Study," redorbit.com, Apr. 15, 2013
87Larry Bell, "Receding Swiss Glaciers Inconveniently Reveal 4000 Year Old Forests - and Make It Clear That Glacier Retreat Is Nothing New," wattsupwiththat.com, Aug. 8, 2014
88Don J. Easterbrook, "Global Cooling Is Here," globalresearch.ca, June 28, 2014
89Philip J. Klotzbach and William M. Gray, "Qualitative Discussion of Atlantic Basin Seasonal Hurricane Activity for 2014," tropical.atmos.colstate.edu, Dec. 10, 2013
90Judith Curry, "Climate Change, Extreme Weather Linked(?) at Last," judithcurry.com, June 30, 2011
91Ezra Klein, "Al Gore Explains Why He's Optimistic about Stopping Global Warming," washingtonpost.com, Aug. 21, 2013
92Richard S. Lindzen, "The Political Assault on Climate Skeptics," wsj.com, Mar. 4, 2015
93Craig D. Idso, "Extreme Weather Events: Are They Influenced by Rising Atmospheric CO2?," co2science.org, Sep. 10, 2014
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96Lyle Denniston, "Opinion Analysis: EPA Mostly Wins, but with Criticism," scotusblog.com, June 23, 2014
97Christopher Monckton, Willie W.H. Soon, David R. Legates, and William M. Briggs, "Why Models Run Hot: Results from an Irreducibly Simple Climate Model," Science Bulletin, Jan. 2015
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99National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), "Global Climate Change Indicators," ncdc.noaa.gov, Apr. 13, 2010
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188Cary Funk and Meg Hefferon, "Many Republican Millennials Differ with Older Party Members on Climate Change and Energy Issues," pewresearch.org, May 14, 2018
189Cary Funk, et al., "Majorities See Government Efforts to Protect the Environment as Insufficient," pewresearch.org, May 14, 2018
190Lydia Saad, "Global Warming Concern at Three-Decade High in US," gallup.com, Mar. 14, 2017
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196Akshat Rathi, "How Big Was the Global Climate Strike? Here’s the Best City-By-City Estimate," qz.com, Sep. 21, 2019
197Eliza Barclay and Brian Resnick, “How Big Was the Global Climate Strike? 4 Million People, Activists Estimate,” vox.com, Sep. 22, 2019
198Henry Fountain, "2019 Was Second-Hottest Year on Record,” nytimes.com, Jan. 19, 2020
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201EPA Press Office, "U.S. DOT and EPA Put Safety and American Families First with Final Rule on Fuel Economy Standards,” epa.gov, Mar. 31, 2020
202Hannah Pitt and Maggie Young, "A Step Closer to a Rollback of Fuel Economy Standards,” rhg.com, Feb. 13, 2020
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205NASA, "NASA, NOAA Analyses Reveal 2019 Second Warmest Year on Record,” nasa.gov, Jan. 15, 2020
206Katherine Ellen Foley, "Those 3% of Scientific Papers That Deny Climate Change? A Review Found Them All Flawed,” qz.com, Sep. 5, 2017